Recent research in evolutionary biology has shown that Australian aboriginals migrated out of Africa some 62-70,000 years ago(M. Rasmussen et al., 2011). This predates the later Eurasian migration by approximately 40,000 years. There is no current genetic research that places aboriginals at any closer date to current Eurasian phenotypes.
Considering that the Neolithic agricultural revolution is estimated to have begun only 10,000 years ago (Richards, 2002), this would appear to indicate that many, if not most, of the products of that revolution are foreign to the aboriginal digestive system.
Modern research on the Paleolithic diet (Cordain et al., 2005) supports the conclusion that many of the health issues facing modern aboriginals come from this leap into a standard Australian diet without any of the intervening evolutionary pressures that where face by Eurasians over the last 10,000 years.
Lactase persistence is the human ability to continue producing the requisite enzymes to digest dairy products. Recent research(Itan, Jones, Ingram, Swallow, & Thomas, 2010) has shown that approximately 85% of post adolescent aboriginals have no ongoing ability to digest dairy products.
While further research is warranted current research into human neurobiology and nutrition would seem to support the position that aboriginal people in Australia should be moving from a standard Australian diet and moving towards of food lifestyle that excludes, dairy, cereal grains, processed oils, processed sugars, refined carbohydrates and solanaceae foods.
Cordain, L., Eaton, S. B., Sebastian, A., Mann, N., Lindeberg, S., Watkins, B. A., O’Keefe, J. H., et al. (2005). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(2), 341-54. Am Soc Nutrition. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15699220
Itan, Y., Jones, B. L., Ingram, C. J., Swallow, D. M., & Thomas, M. G. (2010). A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10(1), 36. BioMed Central. Retrieved from http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/19627/
Rasmussen, M., Guo, X., Wang, Y., Lohmueller, K. E., Rasmussen, S., Albrechtsen, A., Skotte, L., et al. (2011). An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia. Science, 94(September), 94-8. American Association for the Advancement of Science. doi:10.1126/science.1211177
Richards, M. P. (2002). A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(12), 16 p following 1262. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601646